The canonical way to make a heart: β-catenin and plakoglobin in heart development and remodeling
|Title||The canonical way to make a heart: β-catenin and plakoglobin in heart development and remodeling|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Piven, OO, Winata, CL|
|Journal||Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)|
The main mediator of the canonical Wnt pathway, β-catenin, is a major effector of embryonic development, postnatal tissue homeostasis, and adult tissue regeneration. The requirement for β-catenin in cardiogenesis and embryogenesis has been well established. However, many questions regarding the molecular mechanisms by which β-catenin and canonical Wnt signaling regulate these developmental processes remain unanswered. An interesting question that emerged from our studies concerns how β-catenin signaling is modulated through interaction with other factors. Recent experimental data implicate new players in canonical Wnt signaling, particularly those which modulate β-catenin function in many its biological processes, including cardiogenesis. One of the interesting candidates is plakoglobin, a little-studied member of the catenin family which shares several mechanistic and functional features with its close relative, β-catenin. Here we have focused on the function of β-catenin in cardiogenesis. We also summarize findings on plakoglobin signaling function and discuss possible interplays between β-catenin and plakoglobin in the regulation of embryonic heart development. Impact statement Heart development, function, and remodeling are complex processes orchestrated by multiple signaling networks. This review examines our current knowledge of the role of canonical Wnt signaling in cardiogenesis and heart remodeling, focusing primarily on the mechanistic action of its effector β-catenin. We summarize the generally accepted understanding of the field based on experimental in vitro and in vivo data, and address unresolved questions in the field, specifically relating to the role of canonical Wnt signaling in heart maturation and regeneration. What are the modulators of canonical Wnt, and particularly what are the potential roles of plakoglobin, a close relative of β-catenin, in regulating Wnt signaling?Answers to these questions will enhance our understanding of the mechanism by which the canonical Wnt signaling regulates development of the heart and its regeneration after damage.